In the 11th century, during the Song Dynasty (960-1279), there were cunning ambassadors such as Shen Kuo and Su Song, who achieved diplomatic success with the Liao Dynasty, the Kitan`s often hostile neighbor to the north. The two diplomats secured the legitimate borders of the Song Dynasty by knowing the mapping and dredging of the court`s ancient archives. There was also a triad of war and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut dynasty of western Xia in northwest Song China (centered on present-day Shaanxi). After a war with the Lý dynasty in Vietnam from 1075 to 1077, Song and Lý concluded a peace agreement in 1082 to exchange the respective lands they had conquered from each other during the war. Extraterritoriality Exercise of certain sovereign functions in the territory of another State by a nation as a result of formally concluded agreements. A reduction in the competence of the latter State over certain territories and/or specific aspects. Chancellery, head of an important position in British embassies not found in American diplomatic facilities. An official, usually head of the political department, who is responsible for coordinating the content and administrative performance of the embassy. In a U.S. embassy, the ambassador turns to the deputy head of mission to do so.

Mediation An attempt to reach an agreement and hopefully increase goodwill between two opposing parties. Modern diplomatic methods, practices and principles have largely derived from European customs since the 17th century. From the beginning of the 20th century. Diplomacy became more and more professional in the nineteenth century; The 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, ratified by most of the world`s sovereign States, provides a framework for diplomatic procedures, methods and conduct. Today, most diplomacy is conducted by career diplomats accredited through a special political institution (e.g. B a ministry or ministry of foreign affairs), usually with the support of staff and diplomatic infrastructure such as consulates and embassies. Diplomacy is also conducted through other offices such as envoys and ambassadors. The term diplomat is therefore sometimes generally applied to diplomatic and consular staff and officials of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in general. [3] These agreements are crucial for international relations.

Diplomats strive to ensure that relations between countries run as smoothly as possible. This sometimes means that they have to directly address difficult issues. In doing so, they take into account local customs and sensitivities to ensure that their efforts achieve maximum impact. Communiqué Brief public summary issued following major bilateral or multilateral meetings. These tend to be boring and full of standard phrases like ”full and open discussions” and the like. Sometimes an agreement on the communiqué turns out to be the most difficult part of the meeting. Over time, various processes and procedures for dealing with diplomatic issues and disputes have developed. Economic diplomacy is the use of aid or other types of economic policy as a means of carrying out a diplomatic program.

Convention Agreement between two or more States, often more, on matters of common interest. Although it is supposed to be used for smaller issues than it is assumed in a treaty, it often deals with important issues in fact international postal and copyright laws, such as the law of the sea. Before focusing on cultural heritage diplomacy, other concepts are important to consider given their interrelationships. Thus, Joseph Nye`s formulation of soft power permeates the discourses and foreign policy strategies of many countries, although it was initially elaborated with particular reference to the United States. Essentially, soft power refers to the ability to influence and get what you want, through attraction rather than coercion. Heritage and culture are among the soft power resources generally mobilized to strengthen the attractive power of nations, which also depends on their political values, domestic and foreign policy, and leadership in international affairs. The perception of the foreign public is therefore crucial to understanding soft power, especially with regard to the reception of cultural exports and other manifestations of a country`s values and policies in different contexts. In contrast, hard power refers to the use of economic or military means to influence behavior and is clearly more convincing in nature to ensure conformity and loyalty, rather than shaping the preferences of others so that they want what you want. While hard power and soft power are often closely linked to diplomatic strategies, cultural, public and other types of diplomacy are clearly oriented towards maximizing the latter.

A wide range of interpretations encompasses diplomatic strategy. Diplomacy, separated from its context, is not easy to understand. Diplomacy approaches the negotiation process from a strategy of influence. Diplomacy is actively pursuing agreements that are beneficial to each party. The diplomatic characteristics are as follows: the diplomacy of small states is receiving increasing attention in diplomatic studies and international relations. Small States are particularly affected by developments that are determined beyond their borders, such as climate change, water security and changes in the global economy. Diplomacy is the main tool that small states can use to ensure that their goals are achieved on the world stage. These factors mean that small States have a strong incentive to support international cooperation. But with limited resources at their disposal, conducting effective diplomacy presents small states with unique challenges. [20] [21] Some of the earliest known diplomatic documents are the Amarna letters written between the pharaohs of the eighteenth Egyptian dynasty and the Amurru rulers of Canaan in the 14th century BC.

Peace treaties were concluded between the Mesopotamian city-states of Lagash and Umma around 2100 BC. After the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC. J.-C. During the nineteenth dynasty, the pharaoh of Egypt and the ruler of the Hittite Empire created one of the first known international peace treaties, preserved in fragments of stone tablets, now commonly referred to as the Egyptian-Hittite peace treaty. [5] Authorizations A message or other document conveying a policy or direction is ”published” in a foreign ministry or large embassy when all officials responsible for one of its specific aspects have given their consent by initialling. Some officers have a reputation for insisting on changing everything that awaits them, even if only slightly, and it is sometimes claimed that they would do so, even if it was in the Ten Commandments presented to them. Conversely, others are sometimes so casual that their disclosure only seems to mean that the document in question does not seem to detract from their jurisdiction. An authorization procedure in any form is essential for good coordination, but if it is exaggerated (as is often the case), it can be a stifling and lengthy process and a curse of diplomatic life. Letters of credence Name of letters given to an ambassador by his head of State and addressed to the head of state of his host country. They are introduced to him by ambassadors at a formal certification ceremony, which usually takes place shortly after his arrival in a new position.

Until this ceremony takes place, he will not be officially recognized by the host country and will not be able to act officially as an ambassador. The letters are called ”credentials” because they ask the receiving head of state to give ”full faith” to what the ambassador will say on behalf of his government. Calls and calling cards have largely disappeared from privacy, but it is a practice that is still useful in a diplomatic community where early establishment of extensive contacts is a must. Shortly after the arrival of a diplomat in a new position, he will therefore begin a program of invocation of those with whom he will deal and whom he must not waste time getting to know them. In a modern and less formal era, business cards no longer have the same role in diplomatic life as before. But with the traditional initials, p.p. (to present); P.F. (to fliciter); S.c.

(for condolences); p.r. (to thank); or p.p.c. (to take cong) Engraved in their lower left corner, they remain an always useful and accepted way to convey simple messages of introduction, congratulations, condolences, thanks and farewell. Chancery Office where the Head of Mission and his staff work. This office is often called an embassy, but this is an abuse of language. Technically, the embassy is where the ambassador lives, not where he works, although in ancient times, when diplomatic missions were smaller, it was usually the same building. Today, for the sake of clarity, many diplomats distinguish between the two by using the terms ”embassy residence” and ”embassy office.” Delegation is again used in diplomacy in two directions. ”Delegation” may be the term used to refer to the specific powers that his government confers on a diplomat acting in certain circumstances.

It also refers to an official party that is sent to an international conference or other special diplomatic mission. Head of Mission Senior official of an embassy, permanent mission, legation, consulate general or consulate (i.e., always an ambassador and a minister, consul general or consul, if no senior official is assigned to the position). A ”head of mission” can also be the head of a special and temporary diplomatic mission, but the term is usually reserved for the examples listed above. .


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